ISSN 0536-1028 (Print)              ISSN 2686-9853 (Online)  
УДК 622.272 DOI: 10.21440/0536-1028-2021-8-5-14




Relevance. At present, during the transition from open pit to underground mining at iron ore deposits, the most widespread technology is the sublevel caving with frontal ore drawing. This technology has significant drawbacks, namely low ore extraction indicators and increased operating costs for preparatory work and stoping. The development of an alternative technology for the upper sublevel mining, which ensures high extraction indicators, active ore drawing, and lower prime cost of the main flow processes in the presence of an internal dump used as a rock cushion on the quarry floor, is an urgent scientific and technical task.
Research objective is to study the mining factors effect on the technical and economic indicators of differing technologies for mining the upper sublevel under the rock cushion at the iron ore deposits.
Research methods. The work uses a comprehensive research method, including the search and design of a rational version of technology, economic and mathematical modeling, and technical and economic comparison. Analysis of the results. The dependences of the main technical and economic indicators (losses and dilution, the specific volume of preparatory development works, labor productivity and specific operating costs for flow processes) on the height of the upper sublevel between 40 and 100 m and mine capacity between 0.8 and 2.4 million tonnes of ore per year. It has been determined that the operating costs for ore mining have a minimum value under a height of the upper sublevel of 80 m and a production capacity of 1.6 million tonnes of ore per year, which is optimal for an enterprise during the transition period.
Conclusions. The technology of sublevel open stoping with the subsequent rib pillar development by a system of induced block caving has been substantiated, which far more efficient as compared to the traditional version of sublevel caving.

Keywords: iron ore deposit; transition zone; rock cushion; mining system; mining factors; extraction indicators; technical and economic indicators.

Acknowledgements. The research has been carried out within the framework of the state contract no. 075-00581-19-00, theme no. 0405-2019-0005.


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УДК 622.245.1 DOI: 10.21440/0536-1028-2021-8-15-23




Research objective is to determine the results of ice impact on the polymer operating string and adjacent rock mass in the most probable type of computational model that considers the asymmetry of the load imposed by water refreezing in the casing string annulus. The solution to this problem makes it possible to consider the possibility of using polymer pipes in permafrost.
Research relevance is conditioned by the known facts of water freezing in the casing string annulus at low temperatures. In practice, water freezing causes significant deformations and damage operating strings and pipe joints creating emergency situations that can disrupt flow processes.
Research methods. The finite element method is used to calculate the polymer operating string, placed in the rock mass. The proposed method considers the asymmetry of the load imposed on the pipe and uses a lot of parameters to create the computational model. The method makes it possible to include pipe, ice and adjacent rock mass in the computational model considering their properties.
Research results establish the degree of non-uniform loading effect on pipe’s deformation, strength and stability. Pipe calculation results for the conditions of symmetric and asymmetric compression by ice are compared. The results of using a nonlinear model of rock are considered. A significant impact of the composition of rocks around the well has been revealed. The conditions have been determined in which polymer pipes can bear the load during refreezing under asymmetric arrangement of the pipe in the well.

Keywords: ice compression; refreezing; permafrost; well; operating string; loading asymmetry



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УДК 550.837 DOI: 10.21440/0536-1028-2021-8-34-44



Introduction. The paper considers the theory and interpretation of pulse induction sounding that includes the formation measurement of the magnetic field created by a vertical magnetic dipole (VMD) over a layered medium or S-plane.
Research methods. A spectral calculation method with the numerical Fourier sine transform of the spectral function density was applied to study the non-stationary formation of the field. For the case of a homogeneous conducting half-space with the non-conducting upper half-space, it has been shown that magnetic field frequency and time characteristics change similarly, i.e. decrease equally, as the observation point depth increases.
Research results. The pulsed mode of changing the source current in the near-field zone of low frequencies or long transient periods, which are of primary interest in studying the geological section conducting properties, does not have advantages over the harmonic mode. By analyzing the behavior of a field with a source in the form of a vertical magnetic dipole, it is possible to formulate its limiting frequency and time cases. The nature of the magnetic field formation curve revealed that magnetic induction extrema values do not depend on the specific electrical resistance of the medium. However, their position in time is determined by the distance to the dipole and medium resistivity. For the known spacing for remote sounding, the dependence between the magnetic field extremum time and the medium resistivity is a way to estimate it.
Conclusions. In this work, the apparent resistivity for typical layered cross-sections of two-layer and three-layer media was calculated. It has been shown that the results for dipole magnetic field time and harmonic characteristics correspond to one another when studying inhomogeneous layered geoelectric sections.

Keywords: non-stationary electromagnetic field; remote inductive sensing; vertical magnetic dipole;
apparent electrical resistance.
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УДК 551.2.05 DOI: 10.21440/0536-1028-2021-8-24-33



Introduction. The Arctic and the Far East shelf has a true and considerable potential for existing and new oil and gas fields development in the Barents, Kara, and Okhotsk seas. Projects on the continental shelf are closely connected to Russia’s integrated development and quality of life, therefore being of prime national importance. The paper considers natural and man-induced hazards found in the course of exploration drilling and offshore field infrastructure development in freezing seas and high crustal seismicity. Risk management and industrial safety technologies are described in the paper.
Research objective is to obtain reliable information on the state of the environment and mineral resourses on the continental shelf of Arctic and Subarctic seas to ensure the safety of offshore oil and gas field development.
Methods of research included the complex analysis of natural hazards of the Russian shelf, including shallow methane, gas hydrates, ice load, and man-induced hazards, namely offshore blowouts, gas lenses penetration when drilling, and permafrost thawing. The data from geological engineering survey, marine electrical prospecting, geophysical well logging, drilling and the history of offshore field development have been studied.
Research results. A problem of safe offshore operations has been revealed. The problem may be efficiently solved by using advanced technologies for natural and man-induced hazard identification and prevention. Shallow gas deposited in the upper part of the section has been discovered for the first time through the results of geophysical well logging at the fields of the Gulfs of Ob and Taz.
Conclusions. Safe offshore production requires the comprehensive study of the project area’s natural and climatic conditions, as well as geological engineering survey, marine work data analysis, and deep hole surveys. It will make it possible to identify hazardous natural geological processes and prevent man-induced impact on the delicate environment when developing shelf oil and gas resources.

Keywords: shelf; drilling; offshore fields; field infrastructure development; man-induced hazard; natural hazard; oil and gas resources; gas hydrates; shallow gas; permafrost.



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УДК 622.44 DOI: 10.21440/0536-1028-2021-8-45-54



Research relevance. The article proves the advisability of applying high-speed axial fan systems by aerodynamic configuration with one impeller for gas air-cooling units. 
Objective and methods of research. Equations for the efficiency factor of a fan system and a fan depending on flow kinematics and fan system geometry have been obtained by mathematically analyzing axial flow turbomachine main regularities.
Results. Based on the optimization theory, the formulae for maximum efficiency factor for a fan and a fan system of various specific speeds have been obtained depending on the flow coefficient and the impeller hub ratio. The method of creating the axial fan system aerodynamic configuration has been proposed for the K-type gas air-cooling units with the limiting maximum values of the efficiency factor for the prescribed values of the specific speed, impeller hub ratio, lift-to-drag ratio of the impellor profiles, airflow resistance coefficient of the flow channel, and the flow coefficient. The capability was shown to create the fan system with a speed exceeding 400 and efficiency of not less than 0.86.
Keywords: fan system; flow channel; input elements; output elements; efficiency factor; specific speed; lift-to-drag ratio; air-flow resistance coefficient.



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